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¿Qué son los Incoterms?

According to the World Trade Organization (WTO), China, United States and the European Union, with special relevance of Germany, leading figures in it comes to international trade. Face to regulate the different existing operations between these and the set of countries involved there are the so-called Incoterms. We tell you what these rules contain.

The word Incoterm is the abbreviation of International Commercial Terms and as its acronym indicates is the set of international rules that reflect the acceptance by the two agents involved in a commercial operation, ie buyer and seller, in relation to the conditions of delivery of the goods and products.

The Incoterms are regulated by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC), responsible for determining the scope of the different commercial clauses in any international sales contract. In these clauses the responsibilities of both the buyer and the seller are clear as it is reflected in practice as far as international freight transport is concerned.

As is logic, the selection of Incoterm will always influence the final cost of the contract and it is very important to take into account the year of the version thereof. In other words, the ICC has been reviewing said international rules from time to time since 1936. Since then, the following revisions have been carried out: 1945, 1953, 1967, 1976, 1980, 1990, 2000 and 2010

which they are incoterms

Main elements of regulation of incoterms

  • Distribution of conditions, costs, delivery and risks between both parties
  • The responsibility of the expenses derived from a shipment
  • The owner of the goods
  • Liability in the case of damages of the material sent
  • Hiring insurance
  • Who must make or contract customs procedures and payment of duties and VAT
  • When and where there is a risk transfer on merchandise from the seller to the buyer.
  • Which documents are processed by each party and their cost

And all taking into account (in most cases) the location of the merchandise itself.

Most used incoterms

As it is normal, the most used Incoterm is the last revision of it. In Incoterm 2010 we find a total of four categories: E, F, C, D.

Category E:,,pt,Incoterms FCA,,en Incoterms EXW. The seller puts the goods at the buyer's disposal in the seller's premises. Direct delivery.

Category F: Incoterms FCA, FAS y FOB. The seller is asked to deliver the goods to a means of transport chosen and paid for by the buyer. Indirect delivery without payment of the main transport by the seller.

Category C: CFR, CIF, CPT y CIP. The seller hires the transport that does not assume the risk of loss or damage of the goods or additional costs for events that occurred after loading. Indirect delivery with payment of the main transport by the seller.

Category D: DAT, DAP y DDP. Here is the seller who bears all the costs and risks necessary to take the goods to the buyer's country. Direct delivery. Although it should be noted that the D is not proposed when the payment of the transaction is made through a documentary credit.